Sunday, September 24, 2017

The question of self-identity of the Rohingyas of Myanmar

One of the most egregious crimes is to deny a people its inalienable right to self-identify itself. The neo-fascists of Myanmarism have been committing this crime for nearly half a century. To them, the Rohingyas – racially Indian (or South Asian) and religiously either Muslim or Hindu – simply don’t exist or belong in Myanmar (erstwhile Burma). To them: the Rohingyas are outsiders to Myanmar who have infiltrated their Buddhist land from nearby (today’s) Bangladesh or what used to be called the Bengal Presidency (later called the Province of Bengal) under the East India Company that ruled the territory since 1757.

As I have noted elsewhere, the above ethno-religio-supremacist narrative of the Buddhist neo-fascists in Myanmar is utterly false and debunked by credible history. [Interested readers may like to read this author’s book – ‘Muslim Identity and Demography in the Arakan State of Burma’ and the series of articles on ‘The Rohingya Question.’

Arakan – the coastal territory that is separated from today’s Bangladesh by the Naaf River – where the Rohingyas originate from was once ruled for hundreds of years by the Chandra Dynasty who were racially Indian before a Mongolian invasion in 957 C.E. that swept over the capital city of Vesali (Vaishali), killing Sula Chandra, the last king of the Vesali dynasty to rule Arakan. The original inhabitants – the first settlers to the crescent of Arakan – were racially Indian/Bengali, too, and religiously Hindus (mostly worshippers of Shiva), Mahayana Buddhists or animists. They had much in common – linguistically, culturally and religiously - with the Bengali people that lived in the southern part of Chittagong in today’s Bangladesh. The rule of the Chandra kings extended to the southern parts of Chittagong.

The Anand Chandra Inscription at the Shitthaung pagoda provides some information about these early Indian rulers. This 11-foot high monolith, unique in entire Burma, has three of its four faces inscribed in a Nagari script, which is closely allied to those of Bengali and north-eastern India. As noted rightly by Noel Singer had it not been for Professor E.H. Johnston of Balliol College, Oxford, who translated the Sanskrit script and the Indian epigraphists before him, the contents of the Inscription which remained inaccessible for well over a thousand years would never have been known.

During the reign of Mahataing Sandya (Chandra), ca. 788-810 C.E., several Arab/Muslim ships were wrecked on Ramree (Rambi) Island whose surviving sailors and merchants were allowed to settle in Arakan. As the territory was well known to the Arab merchants and traders some Muslim settlements continued to dot the coastal areas of Arakan since at least the late 8th century C.E. Mixing with the local population these Muslim settlers set the stage for the early nexus of today’s Rohingya population.

As hinted above, since the mid-10th century with massive Tibeto-Burman incursions following the overthrow of the Chandra dynasty, the demography of Arakan started changing drastically. The new rulers introduced Theravada Buddhism, which would become over the next few centuries the religion of the majority of the inhabitants of Arakan.

While the previous Vaishali rulers looked westward, the newer rulers looked eastward, thus allowing mixing of its race with the Burman people of today’s Myanmar proper. Eventually Arakan became subservient to the Burman rulers of Pegu until 1287 CE. Over the centuries, thus, two communities emerged – one the indigenous with Indian (Bengali/Arakanese) features (the forefathers of today’s Rohingya Hindus and Muslims) and the other, the new-comers with Mongoloid features (the forefathers of today’s Rakhine Buddhists). It is not difficult to also conclude that in those days of porous borders across land and sea there were migration of other races and religions to this region. Buddhist monks, e.g., came from Sri Lanka bringing in their Theravada Buddhism, as did others - e.g., the Sufis, Muslim merchants and traders - slowly changing the culture of the people living there.

Fast forward to the early 15th century. Narameikhla Min Saw Mon, the Buddhist king of Arakan flees to Gauda (Gaur), the capital of Muslim Bengal in 1406  seeking his help to be reinstalled after being dethroned in 1406 by the   Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa of Ava. The help would come in 1429 under the order of Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah. His general Wali Khan after defeating the Avan (precursor to Burmese) usurper, however, declared himself the new monarch of Arakan, thus betraying the trust of the Sultan.  The infuriated Sultan then sent General Sandi Khan to overthrow Wali Khan with even a larger force and install Narameikhla, a task which was promptly carried out in 1430.

Narameikhla ascended the throne of Arakan for the second time, and took the title Sulayman Shah. Arakan became a vassal state of Bengal and many of the 50,000 Muslim soldiers that had restored the throne of Sulayman Shah permanently settled in Arakan because their services were needed by the reinstated king to defend the country from any future Burmese (Avan) incursion. Sulayman Shah decided to move the capital from Launggyet to Mrauk-U (Mrohaung). The new capital, though not far from Launggyet, was much more strategically located, and would prove much more difficult for invaders to attack. The Muslims who went to Arakan from Bengal settled in the new capital city in large number and built the Sandi Khan (Santikhan) mosque (to be razed during the military rule of Burma some 500 years later).

As duly noted by historian Abdul Karim, “Mrohaung was called by the Bengali poets Roshang which in the mouth of the local people of both Arakan and [adjoining] Chittagong became Rohang, ‘sha’ being turned into ‘ha’ and thus the people came to be known as Rohangi or Rohingya.”

[It goes without saying that Arakan would have a different history today had the Sultan of Bengal let his General Wali Khan rule the country and ignored the pleas of the Arakanese Buddhist king.]

The practice of adopting a Muslim name or title by the Arakanese kings would continue until 1638. Arakanese kings also issued coins bearing the inscription of Muslim Kalema (the profession of faith in Islam) in Arabic script. The State emblem was also inscribed in Arabic word Aqimuddin (establishment of God’s rule over the earth). The Arakanese court’s adoption of many Muslim customs and terms were other noteworthy signs to the influence of Islam in Arakan. Mosques began to dot the countryside and Islamic customs, manners and practices came to be established since this time. To quote historian Bisveswar Bhattacharya, “As the Mohammedan [Islamic] influence was predominant, the Arakanese kings, though Buddhist in religion, became somewhat Mohammedanized [Islamic] in their ideas.”

According to historian, Professor Abdul Karim, “In the 17th century the Muslims thronged the capital Mrohaung and they were present in the miniature courts of ministers and other great Muslim officers of the kingdom. An idea of their presence is available in the writings of Muslim poets like Alaol who wrote that people from various countries and belonging to various groups came to Arakan to be under the care of Arakanese king. The Portuguese Padre Fray Sebastien Manrique visited Arakan and stayed for some time; he was also present in the coronation ceremony of the Arakanese king held on 23 January 1635. He gives a description of the coronation procession and says that of the several contingents of army that took part in the coronation, one contingent wholly comprised of Muslim soldiers, let by a Muslim officer called Lashkar Wazir. The leader rode on Iraqi horse, and the contingent comprised of six hundred soldiers. In other contingent, led by Arakanese commanders also there were Muslim soldiers. This evidence of Sebastien Manrique combined with the fact that there were several Muslim ministers in Arakan gives a good picture of the presence of the Muslim in Arakan in the 17th century. The influence of the Muslim officers over the king of Arakan is also evident from the episodes mentioned by Sebastien Manrique.

Another major influx of Muslims to Arakan owes it to the Rakhine Magh and Portuguese pirates who terrorized coastal territories of Muslim Bengal for centuries during the Mughal rule kidnapping Bengalis. The victims included both Muslims and Hindus who were kidnapped, enslaved and forced to work as slaves – in paddy fields and Buddhist pagodas.

Mughal Historian Shihabuddin Talish describes: “They [the pirates] carried off the Hindus and Muslims, male and female, great and small, few and many that they could seize, pierced the palms of their hands, passed thin canes through the holes and threw them one above another under the deck of their ships.” Historian G.E. Harvey writes, “Renell's map of Bengal, published in 1794 AD marks the area south of Backergunge 'deserted on account of the ravages of the Muggs (Arakanese)'.... The Arakan pirates, both Magh and feringhi, used to come by the water-route and plunder Bengal.... Mohammedans [Muslims] underwent such oppression, as they had not to suffer in Europe. As they continually practised raids for a long time, Bengal daily became more and more desolate and less and less able to resist them. Not a house was left inhabited on their side of the rivers lying on their track from Chittagong to Dacca. The district of Bakla [Backergunge and part of Dhaka], which formerly abounded in houses and cultivated fields and yield a large revenue as duty on betel-nuts, was swept so clean with their broom of plunder and abduction that none was left to tenant any house or kindle a light in that region.”

The Magh-Portuguese piracy was a menace to the peace of Bengal until 1666 C.E., when the Mughals, under the governorship of Shaista Khan (1664-1688) conquered Chittagong from the Arakanese control (1580-1666 C.E.). However, plundering by the Magh-Portuguese pirates continued throughout the 18th century.

As to the number of enslaved Bengalis brought to Arakan, Dr. Michael Charney who specializes on Arakan history estimates that between 1617 and 1666, the total number of those Bengali captives could be 147,000. Those captives were called Kala-douns in the Arakanese chronicles, “who were then donated as pagoda-slaves in the ordination halls and monasteries, including the Maha-muni shrine complex.”

Professor Moshe Yegar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem noted that the capture and enslavement of prisoners was one of the most lucrative types of plunder of Bengal by joint Magh and Portuguese pirates. In his article, “The Crescent in the Arakan”, Yegar wrote, “Half the prisoners taken by the Portuguese and all the artisans among them were given to the king; the rest were sold on market or forced to settle in the villages near Mrohaung. A considerable number of these captives were Muslims.” It is not difficult to surmise why those abducted slaves and their descendants would identify themselves as the Rohingya.

Charney writes, “It is not surprising that in the late 1770s, as observers based in Chittagong explained, ‘Almost three-fourths of the inhabitants of Rekheng [Danra-waddy] are said to be natives of Bengal, or descendants of such… In short, despite the lack of complete data, it is still apparent that the demographic contribution of Bengali captives to Danra-waddy’s population is considerable.”

Charles Paton, the first British Sub-Commissioner to Arakan, mentioned the reason why the Rohingya Muslims were traditionally employed in farming: “The Mugs [Maghs] being particularly fond of hunting and fishing, do not make such good farmers as the Musselmans [Muslims]; however, as Banias and shop-keepers, they [Maghs] surpass the Bengalis in cunning, and, on all occasions try, and very often successfully, to overreach their customers: stealing is a predominant evil amongst them …”

Arakan retained its independent state until 1784 when it was occupied by Burmese king Bodawpaya. His forces stole the Mahamuni Buddha statue to Mandalay. He may rightly be called the harbinger for destroying everything Islamic in Arakan and sowing the seed of distrust between the two major communities - Muslims and Buddhists. His atrocities, however, did not leave out the Arakanese Buddhists whom he considered not religiously Thereveda Buddhist enough. During his annexation and occupation of Arakan, tens of thousands of Arakanese Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists were killed, 200,000 fled to British Bengal (today's Bangladesh), and another 20,000 (including some 3700 Rohingya Muslims) were taken as slaves by the occupation Burmese forces.

The Burmese rule of Arakan lasted for only 40 years when the territory was occupied by the East India Company in 1824 (after the First Anglo-Burmese War). Arakan was made part of the Province of Bengal (which also included Assam), an administrative decision by the British government which was to continue until 1937 when Burma was separated from India and Arakan made part of Burma – for administrative purpose.

The rest is history. Burma became an independent state on January 4, 1948, and the fate of the Arakanese people including the Rohingyas was sealed within the Union of Burma where divide and rule became a fair game for the military and chauvinist politicians to exploit ethnicity and religion to hold onto power. To cleanse Burma of Muslims, esp. the Rohingya, they were declared stateless, which allowed the pariah state to violate every Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations.

As shown above, the Rohingyas are treated as outsiders in spite of their history to Arakan that predates those of the Rakhine Buddhists.

This false narrative of the Buddhist majority is nurtured and fueled by the people of influence – monks, politicians, military, security forces and government - within Myanmar, and has had a very devastating effect on the Rohingya people who have been victims of genocide in a textbook case of ethnic cleansing.

As genocide experts Drs. Greg Stanton and Daniel Jonah Goldhagen have repeatedly mentioned such denials of the self-identification is part of the 8 (or 5, respectively) stages of genocide, which the Rohingyas are facing today. The denial of the Rohingya identity - their very root to the soil of their forefathers – forms the very basis to justify their heinous crimes.

It is said that no matter how one tries to show the obvious and scream at a deaf and blind person, the latter will neither hear nor see the obvious. The problem with the neo-fascists inside the Rakhine state, in particular, and Myanmar, in general, is that they are deaf and blind by design – an evil national project – to eliminate the Rohingyas from Myanmar (and the Rakhine state), and sadly, like to remain in such a cocoon state of absurdity. All our efforts to appeal to their humanity, if anything is left of it within them, are proving to be wasted efforts.

However, Rohingyas don’t need certification from neo-fascists to self-identify themselves. History has recorded their very existence since the time of great Bengali poet Alaol (early 17th century). Period! That is sufficient.

A message from Burma Task Force: it's genocide stupid!

What else is the world looking for?

The French President agrees it’s a genocide. The Bangladesh Foreign Minister says it is a genocide.

Moreover, the before-and-after satellite images document that it is a genocide. 214 Rohingya villages, that is 50% of all villages, are burned to ashes.

Please make urgent calls to the world leaders at the UN and urge them to recognize it as such. See action alert below.

What happened to the people of these villages?

I know. I met some of them just today as I write to you from the border of Bangladesh and Burma.

Have you heard of Tula Koli?

Probably not. Most in the world do not know it yet. An almost complete massacre took place there. Hundreds, and some say thousands, were killed.

Since the burning of Rohingya villages and shooting of people was going on in close by villages, the village Mayor assured them it will not happen in Tula Koli. Some were told that only their houses would be burned, but no one would be killed (so nice of them, right?).

The very next day of Mayor’s assurance, helicopters came, the army landed, all were asked to assemble as military unleashed hell. Those assembled were shot as their homes burned.

All were killed but some. I met the survivors at the border.

Noor Muhammad, lost everyone. Parents, brothers, and sisters. He is only 16. He showed me photos of 3 of his nieces, all killed with their parents. He stood silent with a blank face. Only when I hugged him that he cried. His heart was beating so fast that my chest felt it. I hope your heart does too.

It is nothing but genocide. 

Thanks to Burma Task Force, seven Nobel Peace laureates were the first to call it “a text book case of genocide.”

Now, politicians are calling it “a text book case of ethnic cleansing.” Don’t’ call it ethnic cleansing. The butcher of Bosnia, Milošević, coined this term to counter the charges of genocide. It is shameful that the world leaders are using the term to shy away for what is actually happening.

All scholars agree that it is a genocide.

And now 7 judges from around the world have given the judgement that it is genocide at the International People’s Tribunal, which Burma Task Force sponsored. An academic conference sponsored by Burma Task Force at Harvard and the London School of Economics have agreed it is a genocide.

Symbolic actions and statements are useless. They will not save lives. The world must interfere NOW to stop it.

Genocide is a crime in international law, which requires the world to interfere to stop it. This is the reason we insist, it is a genocide. This is the reason politicians are avoiding its usage.

Peace
Abdul Malik Mujahid
Chair, Burma Task Force USA

Sheikh Hasina's proposal on Rohingya crisis

New York: Bangladesh’s Prime Minister on Thursday proposed creating UN-supervised safe zones inside Myanmar to protect Rohingya Muslims who are fleeing a military crackdown to seek refuge in her country.
The Prime Minister laid out a five-point plan that called for the protection of the Rohingyas in “safe zones that could be created inside Myanmar under UN supervision.”
“These people must be able to return to their homeland in safety, security and dignity," Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina told the UN General Assembly.
The creation of such “safe areas” would require the approval of the Security Council where China, a strong supporter of Myanmar’s former junta, has veto power.
The 1.1-million strong Rohingya people have suffered years of discrimination in Myanmar, where they are denied citizenship even though many have longstanding roots in the country.     
The United Nations says more than 420,000 Rohingya have fled for safety to Bangladesh in the face of an army campaign in northern Rakhine state that includes rape and the burning of villages.
The military operation was sparked by attacks carried out by Rohingya militants on police posts on August 25.
Hasina accused Myanmar authorities of laying landmines on the border to prevent the Rohingyas from returning and said the United Nations must take immediate measures to find a solution to the crisis.
The United Nations has described the military operation as "ethnic cleansing" and French President Emmanuel Macron went further, describing it as a "genocide."
Myanmar must stop the violence and "the practice of ethnic cleansing", agree to allow a UN fact-finding mission, ensure the return of refugees and abide by a report that recommends citizenship for the Rohingya, said Hasina. They currently lack it.
There has been mounting international outrage over the plight of the Rohingya, prompting the UN Security Council this month to call for an end to the violence.
The creation of such "safe areas" would require the approval of the Security Council where China, a strong supporter of Myanmar's former junta, has veto power.
The 1.1-million strong Rohingya people have suffered years of discrimination in Myanmar, where they are denied citizenship even though many have longstanding roots in the country.
The recent exodus of Rohingya has brought the number of refugees from Rakhine living in Bangladesh to over 800,000, said the prime minister.

Friday, September 22, 2017

Message from ARNO on Suu Kyi's disingenuous speech

Aung San Suu Kyi’s disingenuous speech fails to address Rohingya genocide  
The Rohingya people are outraged by the highly contentious and ambiguous speech of the Myanmar State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi delivered before the diplomatic community on 19 September in Naypyidaw. She made numerous disingenuous excuses that fail to address the crisis, the untold sufferings of the Rohingya people, that the U.N stated a “textbook case of ethnic cleansing.”

Without condemning the Myanmar military and collaborators, Suu Kyi tried to deflect the blame for the mass atrocity crimes and told the diplomats that she was unaware the facts why Muslims (Rohingyas)  fled to Bangladesh and that “while many villages had been destroyed, more than half were still intact.” It is a hypocritical statement that suggests that she is a morally bankrupt to take a moral stand on “Rohingya genocide”.

Invoking the UN Charter, she called for a “kinder and more compassionate for all mankind” – just apparently not for the helpless, weakest, poorest and most hated Rohingya minority. Unsurprisingly, throughout the speech, she declined to use the term Rohingya and thereby she rejects in practice the basic international norms and standards which respect physical integrity, self-identification, existence as a community, maintenance of identity and effective participation in governance. She is denying the ethnic Rohingya their “right to exist” in Myanmar.

It is an absurd excuse to talk of “equal rights to higher education” for the Rohingya people who have just been subjected to genocide, who are denied basic rights and freedoms -- freedom of movement, right to education, right to marry, right to vote, right to recognition before the law and as a community. For decades Rohingya students have been barred from studying in country’s colleges and universities, not to speak of equal opportunity.

Her commitments to implement a “strategy and national verification process” for the Rohingya -- including those possibly returning refugees who fled for their lives and lost almost everything -- are simply ridiculous. Rohingya are natural born citizens of Arakan/Myanmar, they do not require cooperating with such unworthy “verification” scheme, a dirty trick of the perpetrators of genocide.

It is a groundless excuse to talk those 18 months in power is a very short time for her new government to speak out for the Rohingya.  Whereas Suu Kyi did not hesitate to voice for other communities, she did not even visit northern Rakhine State to see the Rohingya victims of deadly violence. In no time she could condemn the perpetrators, demand cessation of violations, insist upon the protection of the vulnerable and facilitate relief, allow the international media and accept the UN Fact-Finding Commission to investigate crimes against humanity. On top of that, in a relatively short time, she could have restored the citizenship of the Rohingya population that has been unjustly stripped of. Instead, by evading her government’s ‘responsibility to protect’ the Rohingya, she is trying to hoodwink the international community.

The plight of Rohingya is well-known as the most serious of all problems in Myanmar. Although their outcry reaches far and wide it does not get the ear of Aung San Suu Kyi and Myanmar leaders.  There is no need to investigate “what the real problems are” or, strangely, to ask the half a million or so who did not flee what calculation they made in staying.

It is not the time for double-dealing, but to act on the universal principle of justice and equality!

For more details, please contact:
Australia: Dr. Hla Myint + 61-423381904
Bangladesh: Ko Ko Linn: + 880-1726068413
Canada: Nur Hasim +1-519-5725359
Japan: Zaw Min Htut + 81-8030835327
U.K. Ronnie: +44-7783118354
U.S.A: Dr. Habibullah: +1-4438158609

Email: info@rohingya.org
www.rohingya.org

Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina urges creating Safety Zone to save the Rohingyas

UNITED NATIONS – Bangladesh's prime minister on Thursday, September 21, proposed creating UN-supervised safe zones inside Myanmar to protect Rohingya Muslims who are fleeing a military crackdown to seek refuge in her country.
"These people must be able to return to their homeland in safety, security and dignity," Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina told the UN General Assembly.
The United Nations says more than 420,000 Rohingya have fled for safety to Bangladesh in the face of an army campaign in northern Rakhine state that includes rape and the burning of villages.
The military operation was sparked by attacks carried out by Rohingya militants on police posts on August 25.
Hasina accused Myanmar authorities of laying landmines on the border to prevent the Rohingyas from returning and said the United Nations must take immediate measures to find a solution to the crisis.
The prime minister laid out a 5-point plan that called for the protection of the Rohingyas in "safe zones that could be created inside Myanmar under UN supervision."
The United Nations has described the military operation as "ethnic cleansing" and French President Emmanuel Macron went further, describing it as a "genocide."
Myanmar must stop the violence and "the practice of ethnic cleansing", agree to allow a UN fact-finding mission, ensure the return of refugees and abide by a report that recommends citizenship for the Rohingya, said Hasina. They currently lack it.
There has been mounting international outrage over the plight of the Rohingya, prompting the UN Security Council this month to call for an end to the violence. (READ: Suu Kyi faces mounting world anger over Rohingya)
The creation of such "safe areas" would require the approval of the Security Council where China, a strong supporter of Myanmar's former junta, has veto power.
The 1.1-million strong Rohingya people have suffered years of discrimination in Myanmar, where they are denied citizenship even though many have longstanding roots in the country.
The recent exodus of Rohingya has brought the number of refugees from Rakhine living in Bangladesh to over 800,000, said the prime minister. – Rappler.com

Myanmar: fresh video and satellite evidence shows new fires in Rohingya villages

Amnesty International has assessed three new videos taken inside Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State as recently as this afternoon (Friday 22 September) showing large plumes of smoke rising from Rohingya villages, one of which was already deserted, as well as satellite imagery with smoke visible over burnt-out structures. 
Local sources in Rakhine claim the fires were started by members of the Myanmar security forces and local vigilante mobs. 

One video, filmed yesterday near Hpar Wat Chaung village, northern Maungdaw township, shows agricultural land in the foreground with a large plume of smoke rising from a settlement located amid a group of trees. A local resident told Amnesty that Myanmar Border Guard Police and vigilante groups started the fires in the early afternoon, and that there were further burning operations in the evening.
Amnesty has reviewed satellite imagery of Hpar Wat Chaung from 16 September to earlier today. Smoke is still visible in the latest image, which clearly showed the village had been set ablaze and structures standing just days earlier had been burnt to the ground. Additionally, satellite sensors detected a recent active fire in the village, further corroborating the incident.
Two more videos, taken from different angles reportedly outside Nga Yant Chaung village in Buthidaung township, show the village in flames earlier this afternoon. Activists, including a source in Rakhine State itself, have told Amnesty that the burning began between 1.30pm and 2.00pm local time. 
The new satellite images and videos come after Amnesty last week published irrefutable evidence of a mass-scale scorched-earth campaign across Rakhine State, where Myanmar security forces and vigilante mobs have been burning down entire Rohingya villages and shooting people at random as they try to flee. The violence is part of an unlawful and disproportionate response to coordinated attacks on security posts by a Rohingya armed group on 25 August.
Amnesty’s analysis of active fire-detection data, satellite imagery, photographs and videos from the ground, as well as interviews with dozens of eyewitnesses in Myanmar and across the border in Bangladesh, show how an orchestrated campaign of systematic burnings has targeted Rohingya villages across Rakhine. The violence has prompted more than 429,000 people to flee to Bangladesh as refugees since 25 August. In legal terms, these are crimes against humanity - murder and deportation or forcible transfer of population. Tens of thousands of other people - including members of Rakhine State’s other ethnic minority communities - have also been displaced through the violence.
Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response Director, said:
“This damning evidence from the ground and from space flies in the face of Aung San Suu Kyi’s assertions to the world that what she called military ‘clearance operations’ in Rakhine State ended on 5 September. 
“Almost three weeks later, we can see in real time how there is no let-up in the campaign of violence against Rohingya in northern Rakhine State. 
“Rohingya homes and villages continue to burn, before, during and after their inhabitants take flight in terror. Not satisfied with simply forcing Rohingya from their homes, authorities seem intent on ensuring they have no homes to return to. 
“The time has come and gone for giving Myanmar’s military and political leadership the benefit of the doubt. The international community must be unequivocal in its condemnation and take effective action to halt this ethnic cleansing campaign as well as bring the perpetrators to account.”

Satellite images and analysis

Amnesty International’s satellite imagery analysis on Hpar Wat Chaung village is available to download here or here.

Buhari warns world leaders of their duty to stop genocide of the Rohingya people


Nigerian President Buhari during his UNGA speech urged fellow leaders at the United Nations General Assembly to condemn Myanmar’s “ethnic cleansing” of the Rohingya people.Comparing the situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine province to the massacres in Bosnia in 1995 and Rwanda in 1994, Buhari who is the leader of Africa’s most populous nation declared: “The international community cannot remain silent.”