Sunday, March 25, 2012

The Pornography of Violence

No matter how one abhors it, the pornography of violence has become part of our life these days. There is rarely a day when we are spared of its horrific images invading our privacy, being shown on the TV screens and newspapers. There is something absolutely wrong and hideous with this American culture.

Gone are the days with TV programs like ‘I Love Lucy’ and ‘Gilligan’s Island’ that one could watch and enjoy with all members of the family - parents and children alike -- without worrying about when to switch the channel for its offensive or gruesome contents! Even the children’s programs (including the cartoon shows) on the TV are full of sex and violence these days! But who can deny the influence of what one hears and sees?

In my line of work I travel a lot, often traveling to the southern U.S. states. In my rental cars, when I turn on the radio, thanks to the choice of the pervious renter or rider of the car, it is often the arrogant and hateful voices from radio talk show hosts bombarding the airwaves. And there are times that the previous rider had been listening to music, but never did I come across any car that included the NPR (National Public Radio) as the last rider’s choice of radio stations. This tells a lot about our American culture down south, its preferences and its obsessions!

I dislike listening to guys like Rush Limbaugh that thrive on selling violence and hatred. I prefer listening to the NPR for its balanced coverage of news around the globe and search for it by scanning the FM channels. In some of those southern towns and cities I drive to I may end up coming across at least half a dozen radio channels selling hatred before I find my choice and that too, if I am lucky. In some of these southern cities I can’t find the NPR, but there is no shortage of stations poisoning the airwaves with racism, bigotry and xenophobia. Even in the hotel lobbies and restaurant bars the most viewed TV channel appears to be the Fox News with its line of hatemongers poisoning viewers’ mind.

So, when I learn about the unnecessary and untimely death of Trayvon Martin in Florida I am not shocked. My personal experience as a frequent traveler has prepared me well to absorb such shocks! I am a firm believer in cause and effect. What those hateful politicians, preachers, radio and TV talk show hosts have been spreading is bound to reveal its ugliness through actions here at home and abroad. These executioners of violence owe it to their evil mentors and preachers that have taught them to hate others.

Trayvon was a 17-year old Afro-American high school student who was shot to death on February 26 by a neighborhood watch volunteer, or more correctly, a trigger-happy vigilante. This tragedy happened in Sanford, a small city north of Orlando, Florida, that houses the Disney World, a tourist spot for families with children. Trayvon was returning home at night after buying a bag of Skittles candy and an iced tea from a convenience store. He was pursued by George Zimmerman (28), a white Hispanic, who claimed that he fired at Trayvon in self-defense, although there is no apparent evidence that the teenager was doing anything wrong. Trayvon did neither trail Zimmerman nor provoke him anyway, but there is evidence that he called out in alarm over his cell phone as the armed stranger (Zimmerman) closely pursued him.

At the heart of the controversial killing is a Florida law, passed during Jeb Bush’s tenure as the state Governor that not only enshrined the doctrine of “your home is your castle” but took this doctrine into the public square and added a new concept called “stand your ground.” As noted recently by John Timoney, a former Miami police chief and Philadelphia police commissioner, “Laws like ‘stand your ground’ give citizens unfettered power and discretion with no accountability. It is a recipe for disaster.” As Florida police chiefs predicted in 2005, the law has been used to justify killings ranging from drug dealers’ turf battles to road rage incidents. Homicides categorized as justifiable have nearly tripled since the law went into effect. In spite of such a horrendous record at least twenty other states now have passed this law.

“Stand Your Ground” laws are abominations that should be repealed. It is high time that these states reject and repeal such misguided laws that are strongly backed up by the National Rifle Association, a pro-Republican lobby group that promotes gun-owner-rights.

In Albuquerque, New Mexico, the police union has a practice of paying officers involved in fatal shootings as much as $500 — a program that critics have compared to a bounty system that promotes and legitimizes brutality. The department came under additional scrutiny last year after an officer who had been involved in a fatal shooting described his occupation as “human waste disposal” on Facebook. Another officer wrote on Myspace that “some people are alive only because killing them is illegal.”

In a statement released to The Journal, the Albuquerque Police Officers’ Association said “a deadly force encounter leaves a police officer with a particular kind of stress” and that, as a result, “this association has often assisted its members when they have been involved in critical incidents.” The group denied that the payments were awarded “for the officer merely ‘shooting someone,’ ” but to cover costs for officers “when they decide to get away from the area for a few days” after a shooting.

Last Friday, the mayor called on the city’s police chief to “work with the [Police] union to ensure this practice no longer continues.” I hope that the police union wakes up to the reality of what their reward program could unleash in a culture that literally worships violence.

I am not surprised either to learn about the My Lai style murderous orgy executed by a U.S. Army Sgt. Robert Bales (38) on March 11 in Afghanistan that killed 17 innocent Afghans. Nine of the dead were children; some others were women and elderly men. The bodies of some of the victims were set on fire. These innocent victims were attacked as they slept in villages that were supposed to be protected by soldiers on Bales’s base. What a betrayal! In terms of number of victims while surely Bales’s massacre is much smaller in magnitude, it is no less criminal than what had happened in Srebrenica in July of 1995 when the Dutch-speaking peacekeepers of the UNPROFOR did nothing to stop the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian Muslims by Serbian and Greek Orthodox Christians under the command of General Ratko Mladic.

Contrary to some early reports, the latest massacre in Afghanistan had neither anything to do with the PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) nor was it an isolated event done by a rogue member. It is inconceivable that a soldier like Bales could get out of his base twice after 1 a.m. unchallenged and without anyone’s knowledge. How did he manage to do so much damage alone?

As the Christian Science Monitor (CSM) reported there is something sinister about the entire massacre and the responsibility for the crime goes up higher in the chain of military command. Just days before the massacre the villagers were threatened by American soldiers: ‘A bomb exploded on our vehicle. … We will get revenge for this incident by killing at least 20 of your people.’ (CSM, March 20, 2012) It was not surprising that the U.S. government kept the identity of the soldier hidden until he was safely flown out of Afghanistan.

It has been quite some time that we have been hearing about the Kill Team within the NATO forces stationed in Afghanistan. Last year, Mark Boal of the Rolling Stone magazine published a lengthy expose on this “kill team” group that included a link to a number of the photographs. He wrote, “Indeed, it would have been hard not to know about the murders, given that the soldiers of 3rd Platoon took scores of photographs chronicling their kills and their time in Afghanistan. The photos, obtained by Rolling Stone, portray a front-line culture among U.S. troops in which killing Afghan civilians is less a reason for concern than a cause for celebration. “Most people within the unit disliked the Afghan people, whether it was the Afghan National Police, the Afghan National Army or locals,” one soldier explained to investigators. “Everyone would say they’re savages.” One photo shows a hand missing a finger. Another depicts a severed head being maneuvered with a stick, and still more show bloody body parts, blown-apart legs, mutilated torsos. Several show dead Afghans, lying on the ground or on Stryker vehicles, with no weapons in view.” (March 27, 2011)

The recent massacre of Afghan civilians is part of a much broader trail of war crimes that has allowed brain-washed hateful soldiers to commit the so-called collateral damages, bombing ‘mistakes’, drone attacks, the urination on dead Afghans, the collection of body parts from their victims as souvenirs and the burning of the Qur’an, and has given them a sense of immunity knowing from past records that the perpetrators of such heinous crimes may not even serve time behind the bars. And these criminal soldiers cannot be blamed for entertaining such thoughts when we know that not one of the eight Marines charged in the 2005 massacre of 24 people in Iraq, including women, children and a man in wheelchair, was imprisoned. One was acquitted and the charges against six others were dropped. The Sergeant who admitted ordering his men to ‘shoot first and question later’ was given a plea bargain, serving no time behind the bars. Similarly, the United States military has recently decided that no service members will face disciplinary charges for their involvement in a NATO airstrike in November 2011 that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.

Like pornography, violence is an addiction. And America is addicted to violence. It is this culture that glorifies violence through pre-emptive strikes not just in the towns and villages in harm’s ways in places like Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan but also everywhere within the USA. It finds excuses for the trigger-happy executioners that shoot and kill their victims (often a minority inside, and of ‘other’ race or religion outside the USA) without feeling any guilt or remorse. In a clear case of cognitive dissonance, the general public, mesmerized by vile messages from the ultra-nationalist, racist and bigoted elements within the politics and political discourse of America, thus see no evil or crime for these criminals. At most, they see Zimmerman as a threatened victim within the society, and Bales as a victim of unpopular wars -- started by George W. Bush, and now continued by Barack Obama – who had made bad decisions or acted in self-defense.

It is this evil culture that is again trying to push America to launch pre-emptive strikes against Iran, in spite of all the evidences that show that Iran does not have an active nuclear weapons program. Forgotten are the facts that Bush Jr. and Cheney were wrong in their perceptions about the Iraqi WMDs and should be tried for misleading the American public, let alone bankrupting the country and committing crimes against humanity.

When America refuses to punish its criminals for their crimes against the ‘other’ people, it destroys more than its concept of justice. It devalues the lives of their victims. These criminals deserve the contempt of this nation and not either excuse or applause.

The death of Trayvon was the result of a long line of violent acts, the culmination of hate and suspicion and doubt in this country. This country has allowed people to kill and brutalize those that they don't like. This pornography of violence must stop. Otherwise, as Malcolm X once said, America’s chickens are coming home to roost. It will reap what it had been sowing.

Is America listening, esp. her politicians, that have in the post-9/11 era sold the poison pills of hatred against the ‘other’ people?

Sunday, March 18, 2012

An interesting article on Israel's assassination program

In recent months with some Israeli diplomats and their family members themselves being targets of IEDs attached to cars, SUVs, fingers have been pointed to Iran. As you may know several Iranian scientists suspected of working for the nuclear program have been killed by the Israeli Mossad agents (and probably the CIA) inside Iran. Targeted assassination of Muslim scientists and engineers has been a specialty of the Mossad since the rogue nation came into existence more than half a century ago.

While it is armed to the teeth with all kinds of WMDs, thanks to its backers in the West, Israel does not want anyone to come anywhere close to becoming a competitor. So, it has bombed Osirak facility in Iraq in 1981, even though the facility did not have a weapons program. It misguided the Bushies to launch the Iraq war in 2003, which only revealed later that the Iraqi regime did not have any WMD. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have bankrupted the USA, and killed some 6,000 of its soldiers, and injured in excess of another 50,000 soldiers. As to the massacres, repeated incidents of My Lai the least said the better. More than a million unarmed civilians who had nothing to do with either of the fallen regimes - Ba'athists and Taleban - were unnecessarily killed, or rather pulverized in one of the most sadistic campaigns in history of mankind. The same forces, i.e., the Israelis and their 'Amen Corner' in the U.S. Capitol Hill, are again making the same claims about Iran as they did for Iraq. They have not learned anything new and will not learn anything. War and deceptions are their ways and they would continue to do their evils to make Israel the Goliath of our time by turning our world into a living hell. Even if Obama and Cameron won't stop Israel and come to the aid of the Davids of our time, if history is any judge of world events, Goliath will fall because arrogance and evil cannot win forever.

In its long history, Iran has tried to defend itself, rather than being an invader, something we cannot say of Israel, which has invaded all its neighbors in the last six decades. With immoral and evil backers in the West, Israel likes to provoke Iran. But the latter is smart enough not to fall for such traps.

Click here to read an interesting piece on Israeli murderous activities inside Iran.

Friday, March 16, 2012

On Iran's Nuclear Program

The USA and the UNSC won't stop the massacre in Syria. These powers say that Syria is not Libya and that it is not in their interest to stop the massacre there.

But when it comes to Iran, these same nuclear Brahmins and veto powers have no problem to do everything that their true master - the Israeli warmongers - dictates. Short of a real war, they are doing everything to choke the people of Iran. It does not matter that the Iranian supreme leader and the president have repeatedly said that they consider nuclear weapons haram in Islam, and that Iran's nuclear program is peaceful for medical use! No, you can't make a believer out of a disbeliever when it shuts its ears to truth. No loudspeakers would do any good!

For another brilliant article by Nima, click here.

Link to a must-read article on massacre of Afghans

For a brilliant article on recent massacre of Afghans click here.

My letter to Dr. Dipu Moni, Foreign Minister of Bangladesh

Dear Dr. Dipu Moni,

Salam. It is gratifying to learn that because of the success of the initiative you took pressing the legitimate right of Bangladesh to explore oil and gas in the complete area of deepwater block DS-08-11 of the Bay of Bengal, long conceived a disputable area, now Conoco-Phillips will be able to conduct exploration. It is a great victory for Bangladesh and its people. And you ought to be credited for making Bangladesh's voice not only heard but respected and honored. Thank you for a job well done.

I hope our other big neighbor India would also see the maritime verdict announced by the ITLOS as a clear sign to resolve the mater of disputed maritime boundary with Bangladesh amicably. But if history is any barometer to judge what to expect from India, I won't be surprised if she refuses to open its eyes and ignores Bangladesh's legitimate rights.

India has already made a mockery of Bangladesh's goodwill and is abusing its territory to ship its goods to the north-east corner while starving Bangladesh of its legitimate rights to water share from the international rivers. India has forgotten that rights is not same as privilege. What she got in Bangladesh is privilege and what they deny to Bangladesh is rights. And that is unacceptable and criminal to the core.

As Foreign Minister, I am sure you would do your utmost to address such disproportionate attitude and rogue behavior of the Indian government.

Best regards,
Dr. Habib Siddiqui
Philadelphia, USA

Sunday, March 4, 2012

Dealing with Muslim Predicament in the post-colonial era

The seventh century which saw the rise of Islam also saw Christian Europe enter the Dark Ages. In the western Europe the invading Goths had almost obliterated the culture and technology of the Romans. In the Eastern Roman Empire, centering in Constantinople, the Church had all but suppressed Greek science and philosophy. India was languishing in a period of stagnation; and China, while blossoming richly in the arts, was almost wholly devoid of science.

It was during this period of decline and stagnation that Muslim Arabs, the followers of Muhammad (S) – the Prophet of Islam, became the torchbearers or vanguards of knowledge in our world. They created an Islamic civilization, driven by inquiry and invention, which was to become the envy of the rest of the world for nearly a millennium.

It is this spirit, the unquenched thirst for knowledge, which made Abu Rayhan al-Biruni to ask a question on inheritance law or some other related issue while he was lying on his deathbed. (Abu Rayhan al-Biruni was a great scientist, physicist, astronomer, sociologist, linguist, historian and mathematician whose true worth may never be known. He is considered the father of unified field theory by Nobel Laureate - late Professor Abdus Salam. He lived nearly a thousand years ago and was a contemporary of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Sultan Mahmoud of Ghazni.)

The jurisprudent was quite amazed that a dying man should show interest in such matters.

Abu Rayhan said, “I should like to ask you: which is better, to die with knowledge or to die without it?”

The man said, “Of course, it is better to know and then die.”

Abu Rayhan said, “That is why I asked my first question.”

Shortly after the jurisprudent had reached his home, the cries of lamentation told him that Abu Rayhan had died. (Murtaza Motahari: Spiritual Discourses)

Speaking about the Islamic civilization, Carli Fiorina, the former (highly talented and visionary) CEO of Hewlett Packard, said, “Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the building of computers, and the creation of encryption. Its doctors examined the human body, and found new cures for disease. Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the way for space travel and exploration. Its writers created thousands of stories; stories of courage, romance and magic. When other nations were afraid of ideas, this civilization thrived on them, and kept them alive. When censors threatened to wipe out knowledge from past civilizations, this civilization kept the knowledge alive, and passed it on to others. While modern Western civilization shares many of these traits, the civilization I'm talking about was the Islamic world from the year 800 to 1600, which included the Ottoman Empire and the courts of Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo, and enlightened rulers like Suleiman the Magnificent. Although we are often unaware of our indebtedness to this other civilization, its gifts are very much a part of our heritage. The technology industry would not exist without the contributions of Arab mathematicians.”

Truly, there is a hardly a field that is not indebted to these pioneering children of Islam. Here below is a short list (by no means a comprehensive one) of Muslim scientists from the 8th to the 15th century CE:

• 701 (died) C.E. - Khalid Ibn Yazeed - Alchemy
• 721-803 - Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber) - Alchemy (Great Muslim Alchemist)
• 740 - Al-Asma’i - Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry
• 780 - Al-Khwarizmi (Algorizm) – Mathematics (Algebra, Calculus) - Astronomy
• 776-868 - ‘Amr ibn Bahr al-Jajiz – Zoology
• 787 - Al Balkhi, Ja'far Ibn Muhammas (Albumasar) - Astronomy
• 796 (died) - Al-Fazari, Ibrahim Ibn Habib - Astronomy
• 800 - Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi - (Alkindus) – Medicine, Philosophy, Physics, Optics
• 815 - Al-Dinawari, Abu-Hanifa Ahmed Ibn Dawood - Mathematics, Linguistics
• 816 - Al Balkhi – Geography (World Map)
• 836 (b.) - Thabit Ibn Qurrah (Thebit) - Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry
• 838-870 - Ali Ibn Rabban Al-Tabari - Medicine, Mathematics
• 840 – Abu Kamil ibn Aslam – Algebra, Mathematics
• 852 - Al Battani Abu Abdillah - Mathematics, Astronomy, Engineering
• 857 - Ibn Masawaih You'hanna-Medicine
• 858-929 - Abu Abdullah Al-Battani (Albategnius) - Astronomy, Mathematics
• 860 - Al-Farghani, Abu al-`Abbas (Al-Fraganus) - Astronomy, Civil Engineering
• 864-930 - Al-Razi (Rhazes) - Medicine, Ophthalmology, Chemistry
• 873 (died) - Al-Kindi – Physics, Optics, Metallurgy, Oceanography, Philosophy
• 880-943 – Sinan ibn Thabit al-Qurra – Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Anatomy
• 888 (died) – ‘Abbas ibn Firnas – Mechanics, Planetarium, Artificial Crystals
• 900 (died) - Abu Hamed Al-ustrulabi - Astronomy
• 903-986 - Al-Sufi (Azophi) - Astronomy
• 908 (b.) – Ibrahim ibn Sinan ibn Thabit Ibn Qurrah – Optics, Astronomy, Geometry, Engineering
• 920 (b.) – Abul Hasan al-Uqlidisi – Mathematics
• 912 (died) - Al-Tamimi Muhammad Ibn Amyal (Attmimi) - Alchemy
• 923 (died) - Al-Nirizi, AlFadl Ibn Ahmed (Altibrizi) - Mathematics, Astronomy
• 930 - Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmed Abu-Ali-Medicine, Alchemy
• 932 - Ahmed Al-Tabari - Medicine
• 934 - al Istakhr II – Geography (World Map)
• 936-1013 - Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi (Albucasis) - Surgery, Medicine
• 940-997 – Abu Wafa Muhammad Al-Buzjani - Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry
• 940-1000 (ca.) – Abu Sahl Waijan ibn Rustam al-Quhi (al-Kuhi) – Astronomy, Mathematics, Geometry
• 953-1029 – Abu Bakr al-Karaji – Mathematics
• 943 - Ibn Hawqal – Geography (World Map)
• 950 - Al Majrett'ti Abu-al Qasim - Astronomy, Alchemy, Mathematics
• 958 (died) – Abul Hasan Ali al-Mas’udi – Geography, History
• 960 (died) - Ibn Wahshiyh, Abu Baker - Alchemy, Botany
• 965-1040 - Ibn Al-Haitham (Alhazen) - Physics, Optics, Mathematics
• 970-1036 – Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraqi – Mathematics, Astronomy
• 973-1048 - Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni - Astronomy, Mathematics, History, Linguistics
• 976 - Ibn Abil Ashath - Medicine
• 980 (b.) – Al-Baghdadi – Mathematics, Advanced Numerical Methods
• 980-1037 - Ibn Sina (Avicenna) - Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy
• 983 - Ikhwan A-Safa (Assafa) - (Group of Muslim Scientists)
• 1001 - Ibn Wardi – Geography (World Map)
• 1008 (died) - Ibn Yunus - Astronomy, Mathematics
• 1019 - Al-Hasib Alkarji - Mathematics
• 1029-1087 - Al-Zarqali (Arzachel) - Astronomy (Invented Astrolabe)
• 1044 - Omar Al-Khayyam - Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry
• 1060 (died) - Ali Ibn Ridwan Abu'Hassan Ali - Medicine
• 1077 - Ibn Abi-Sadia Abul Qasim - Medicine
• 1090-1161 - Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) - Surgery, Medicine
• 1095 - Ibn Bajah, Mohammed Ibn Yahya (Avenpace) - Astronomy, Medicine
• 1097 - Ibn Al-Baitar Diauddin (Bitar) - Botany, Medicine, Pharmacology
• 1099 - Al-Idrisi (Dreses) - Geography, Zoology, World Map (First Globe)
• 1110-1185 - Ibn Tufayl, Abubacer Al-Qaysi - Philosophy, Medicine
• 1120 (died) -Al-Tuhra-ee, Al-Husain Ibn Ali - Alchemy, Poem
• 1128 - Ibn Rushd (Averroe's) - Philosophy, Medicine, Astronomy
• 1130 (b.) – Al-Samawal - Algebra
• 1135 - Ibn Maymun, Musa (Maimonides) - Medicine, Philosophy
• 1135 (b.) – Sharaf al-Din – Algebra, Geometry
• 1140 - Al-Badee Al-Ustralabi - Astronomy, Mathematics
• 1155 (died) - Abdel-al Rahman Al Khazin-Astronomy
• 1162 - Al Baghdadi, Abdel-Lateef Muwaffaq - Medicine, Geography
• 1165 - Ibn A-Rumiyyah Abul'Abbas (Annabati) - Botany
• 1173 - Rasheed Al-Deen Al-Suri - Botany
• 1180 - Al-Samawal - Algebra
• 1184 - Al-Tifashi, Shihabud-Deen (Attifashi) - Metallurgy, Stones
• 1201-1274 - Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi - Astronomy, Non-Euclidean Geometry
• 1203 - Ibn Abi-Usaibi'ah, Muwaffaq Al-Din - Medicine
• 1204 (died) - Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) - Astronomy
• 1213-1288 - Ibn Al-Nafis Damishqui - Anatomy
• 1236 - Kutb Aldeen Al-Shirazi - Astronomy, Geography
• 1248 (died) - Ibn Al-Baitar - Pharmacy, Botany
• 1258 (b.) - Ibn Al-Banna (Al Murrakishi), Azdi - Medicine, Mathematics
• 1260 (b.) – Al-Farisi - Mathematics
• 1262 (died) - Al-Hassan Al-Murarakishi - Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography
• 1270 - Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini – Physics, Astronomy
• 1273-1331 - Al-Fida (Abdulfeda) - Astronomy, Geography
• 1306 - Ibn Al-Shater Al Dimashqi - Astronomy, Mathematics
• 1320 (died)-Al Farisi Kamalud-deen Abul-Hassan - Astronomy, Physics
• 1341 (died) - Al-Jildaki, Muhammad Ibn Aidamer - Alchemy
• 1351 - Ibn Al-Majdi, Abu Abbas Ibn Tanbugha - Mathematics, Astronomy
• 1359 - Ibn Al-Magdi, Shihab-Udden Ibn Tanbugha - Mathematic, Astronomy
• 1369 (died) – Ibn Katina – Medicine
• 1375 (died) - Ibn Shatir – Astronomy
• 1380-1424 - Ghiyath al-Din al Kashani – Numerical Analysis, Computation
• 1393-1449 – Ulugh Beg – Trigonometry, Astronomy
• 1412 (b.) – Abul Hasan ibn Ali al-Qalasadi - Algebra

(References: Hamed Abdel-Reheem Ead, Professor of Chemistry at Faculty of Science, University of Cairo Giza-Egypt and Director of Science Heritage Center,; See also the books: 100 Muslim Scientists by Abdur Rahman Sharif, Al-Khoui Pub., N.Y; Muslim Contribution to Science by Muhammad R. Mirza and Muhammad Iqbal Siddiqi, Chicago: Kazi Publications, 1986.)

With such a train of Muslim scholars, it is not difficult to understand why George Sarton said, "The main task of mankind was accomplished by Muslims. The greatest philosopher Al-Farabi was a Muslim; the greatest mathematicians Abul Kamil and Ibrahim Ibn Sinan were Muslims; the greatest geographer and encyclopaedist Al-Masudi was a Muslim; the greatest historian, Al-Tabari was still a Muslim." The Oxford History of Technology sums it up as follows: "There are few major technological innovations between 500 A.D. and 1500 that do not show some traces of the Islamic culture." Dr. Murad Wilfried Hofmann, an ex-German diplomat and author, similarly writes, “The European intellectual exploits of the Renaissance would have been unthinkable without Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd, al-Biruni, al-Khawarizmi, ar-Razi, lbn al-Haytham, Ibn Battuta and Ibn Khaldun.” [9]

History before Islam was a jumble of conjectures, myths and rumors. It was left to the Muslim historians who introduced for the first time the method of matn and sanad tracing the authenticity and integrity of the transmitted reports back to eyewitness accounts. According to the historian Henry Thomas Buckle ‘this practice was not adopted in Europe before 1597 AD.’ Another method: that of historical research and criticism - originated with the celebrated historian Ibn Khaldun. The author of Kashfuz Zunun gives a list of 1300 history books written in Arabic during the first few centuries of Islam. That is no small contribution!

The rise of Muslim rule was dramatic. So also was its decline to the point where in 1492 the Caliph Abdullah abandoned Granada to the conquering Spaniards, "weeping like a woman for what he could not defend like a man."

For the next five centuries while the Islamic civilization declined – politically, economically, socially and culturally, it set all Christendom aglow. Thus, the same period that saw a dawning of the Christian West, sadly, for the vast majority of Muslims living (outside the Ottoman and Mughal Empires) in Asia, Africa and Europe it has been a period of doom and gloom. By the mid-19th century, the Christian West had colonized all Muslim territories except what was left by then of the once powerful Ottoman Empire, setting in motion a process that not only saw the great plunder of immense natural resources but the utter decimation of former Islamic institutions. Nowhere was this destruction or strangulation felt more severely than in the intellectual sector. Consequently, when the former colonizers either had left on their own volition or were forced out in the post-World War II era, Muslims in the newly emerged nation states found out that they have become a nation of zeros. Their excellence in science, arts and literature -- a matter of much national pride -- has vanished and become only a matter of fond memory about a distant and glorious past that has nothing in common with the current harsh reality!

Some years ago a published UN report on Arab development noted that the Arab world comprising of 22 countries had translated about 330 books annually. That is a pitiful number, only a fifth of the number of the books that (tiny) Greece (alone) translates in a year! (Spain translates an average of 100,000 books annually.) Why such an allergy or aversion from those whose forefathers did not mind translating older works successfully to regain the heritage of antiquity, analyzing, collating, correcting and supplementing substantially the material that was beneficial to mankind? Why is the literacy rate low among Muslims when the first revealed message in the Qur’an is ‘Iqra (meaning: Read)?

How do Muslims get out of this predicament? What strategy should they follow?

Part 2:
Solutions to present-day predicament:

Muslims must look into their past to search for solutions to their current predicament. How did those desert Arabs of Muhammad’s (S) time, one of the most unlettered people on earth, technologically far inferior to their counterparts in Persia and Byzantine, once become the proud ancestors of Islamic civilization dominating for centuries half the known world? What characteristics defined them? What attitudes did they have? What did they learn and what skills did they acquire?
Before Islam, those desert Arabs were the ignored bunch in history left to live a life of ignominy. The cultural transformation in those desert Arabs was brought about by one man – the most remarkable figure in history - Muhammad (S), the Prophet of Islam. The first word of his prophecy was – Iqra. As he preached pure monotheism in Allah, breaking all artificial barriers between men, he taught his people religious ethics and morality -- to shun falsehood, to be just, to do what is virtuous (ma’ruf) and forbid what is evil (munqar). He taught them accountability for their deeds. He taught them how to live a wholesome noble life, and how to die nobly. Thus, like a good teacher, he molded their character.

The influence of the religion which Muhammad (S) preached to his people did not diminish after his death in 632 CE (11 A.H). On the contrary, it increased year by year through the Qur’an, the sacred book of Islam. Though caliphs came and went, though military commanders were capable or inept, the power of the Qur’an kept the Muslims true to their course and maintained that spirit of unity for which Muhammad (S) had laid the foundations. Racial energies which had been wasted in internecine warfare were turned into channels which led to prosperity and progress.

As the Islamic empire expanded, conquering newer territories, the Muslim rulers offered better social and economic conditions than those which prevailed. In accordance with the teachings of Muhammad (S), the armies of Islam were careful to abuse neither the countryside nor its inhabitants. In fact, the orders later given by the Caliphs Abu Bakr and Ali (RA) regarding merciful treatment of non-combatants were the first humanitarian steps taken in the history of warfare. Arab rule introduced a more stable situation than any previously known in the Middle East. The condition of the peasants was improved by means of new and more democratic land division and less stringent taxation. Many of the conquered peoples enlisted in the armies of Islam, becoming even Muslims to further advance their social standing. Within a few decades from the death of its Prophet (S), the Arab nation ruled from the gates of India to the Straits of Gibraltar. [6]

As noted by historian Stanwood Cobb, this seeming miracle was the result of various factors, some of which have already been discussed. ‘But more than anything else, it was due to the religious zeal which possessed the Muslims.’

The dawn of Islamic culture and technology broke first in the newly founded city of Baghdad, which became the model of an urban civilization that began to spread throughout the Muslim world. Its location on the banks of the Tigris was ideal for Islam's capital city. Profiting by the peace and protection of Islam, merchants traveled safely between India and Egypt, making Baghdad an unrivaled commercial hub. The city grew rapidly. A new and wealthy class of merchants, some of whom attained huge fortunes, came into existence. Their prosperity soon seeped down to even the humblest citizens. The "Kadi", or judge, was available to the lowliest citizen, as in fact even the caliph was at times. A new taxation system, more equitable than that under Roman rule, helped to stabilize the economy. A general exuberance and atmosphere of adventure pervaded the life of Baghdad, which soon came to be known as the land of opportunity, much like what is today promoted in places like the New York City. It was a city that integrated people of all races, creating synergy for greater good for all. Its caliphs were zealous patrons of education and invited scholars from all parts of the world. ‘Persians, Greeks and Armenians jostled elbows with Arabs. Christians and Jews were as welcome as Muslims. These scholars were kept busy translating and codifying works of science from the Greek and Aramaic languages. Their emoluments were generous and their prestige great.’ [6]

Baghdad became the focal center of the world's learning. Its caliphs built modern universities, attracting the most brilliant minds, who would later become the Steve Jobs and Bill Gates of that Islamic civilization. They erected observatories, thus enabling Muslim mathematicians to correctly estimate the circumference of the globe as 25,000 miles. As these Muslim scientists and engineers resurrected the forgotten or neglected sciences, they also expanded them.
Those caliphs were a perfect example of practicability. Their zeal for abstract learning did not lessen their concern for the welfare of the humble peasant, the "man with the hoe", upon whose shoulders has always rested fundamentally the burden of civilization. For, they fully realized the importance of the soil and its tillage both as a source of state income and as a means of prosperity and happiness to the masses. Scientific horticulture became a flourishing and progressive practice in all the Muslim caliphates. The whole known world was scoured for new varieties of plants, and the art of irrigation was intelligently utilized to increase production.
In the words of Stanwood Cobb, “Prosperity and culture were not peculiar to the wealthy class alone. For this rapidly growing Islamic civilization was built upon the broad foundations of the welfare of the common people, in accordance with the precepts of the Islamic brotherhood founded by Muhammad (S), upheld by the Koran [Qur’an], and practiced by all the early caliphs. Probably never in previous centuries had the well-being of the masses been so deeply and intelligently considered as it was in all these Islamic caliphates. The new socio-economic pattern in religious and political life gave a dynamic unity to all phases of Muslim activity. The extraordinary rise of the Arabic-Islamic culture cannot be viewed separately from this factor of unity which, beginning on the spiritual plane, reached down to dominate all aspects of secular life.” He continues, “All of these factors combined to create a seemingly more harmonious and universally prosperous economic pattern than had existed before the coming of Islam. A proof of the satisfactory condition of the masses during the first few centuries of Islamic rule is that practically all of the Middle East and Persia, ninety percent of the population of Christian Egypt, and all the peoples of North Africa became Muslims. This they did of their own choice, for conversion was never forced upon the conquered.”

The cultural progress of Baghdad was copied into all other major Muslim cities. In all these Islamic centers libraries and universities were founded, and schools for the common people were established. Learning and scholarship were highly honored. The new common language enabled scholars to move from court to court in search of career opportunities. Thus a constant exchange of ideas stimulated the focal centers of Muslim culture; scientific advances and discoveries were quickly spread from caliphate to caliphate.

The end result was a glorious Islamic civilization that we are so proud of. Throughout the Islamic Empire education, art and science were unified by a common faith, a common language and common customs. Muslim scholars could travel freely between Bukhara and Xinjiang in the east to Cordova in the west. The extent of this Islamic civilization, as well as the progress and achievements of its component parts proved an inspiration to Muslim scholarship and creative arts.

As Baghdad had been the first of many such Islamic centers to arise in glory, so it was the first to fall into that decay. As in the case of Rome, the corruptions of luxury and the selfish grasping of power by rival political elements contributed to her decline. The justice which had characterized the rule of the early caliphs yielded to an inequitable system of taxation and to corrupt government.

As Muslims search answers to their predicament, so must they retrace their roots and dig those values that were responsible for their glorious past and discard or weed out all those that are harmful. History can again make them wise if they know how to read its truths. If they are to learn from Arnold Toynbee [7], here are some lessons from the Islamic civilization:

1. Peace is a necessity for cultural advance.
2. The prosperity of all peoples springs from the soil. Thus, serious attention must be given to agriculture.
3. The spirit of √©lan or confidence (the ‘can do’ attitude) under which science can flourish. It is always in periods of enthusiasm and zeal that civilization advances most rapidly.
4. Devotion of the people to a common language and religion.
5. Lastly, the establishment of civilizations requires unifying forces. The more unifying the force, the more stable the civilization.

Part 3: Strategy for Rejuvenation

So where shall Muslims start? What should be their strategy or game plan towards rejuvenation, let alone arresting their decadence in the 21st century? In what follows I propose three major areas that need to be prioritized for transforming the pathetic state of the Muslim world.

1. Education
The main reason behind the success of early Muslims rested in their seeking knowledge where it was evident and also from places where it was hidden. In this regard, the attitude that they instilled was a never satiated thirst, which followed the Prophetic Traditions: “A Muslim is never satiated in his quest for good (knowledge) till it ends in paradise.” [Tirmizi: narrated by Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA)] “One who treads a path in search of knowledge has his path to Paradise made easy by Allah thereby.” [Muslim: Abu Hurayrah (RA)] “To seek knowledge for one hour at night is better than keeping it (night) awake.” [Darimi: Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA)]

Those Muslims did not shy away from translating and learning from others in the best of the Prophetic Traditions: “The word of wisdom is [like] the lost property of a wise man. So wherever he finds it, he is entitled to it.” [Tirmizi: Abu Hurayrah (RA)]

When others were hesitant to do experiments to check their hypotheses, they courageously filled the vacuum. In that they were true to the Prophetic dictate: “Knowledge is a treasure house whose keys are queries.” [Mishkat and Abu Na’im: Ali (RA)]

At a personal level, all Muslims must act upon the celebrated hadith of Prophet Muhammad (S): “The search of knowledge is an obligation laid on every Muslim.” [1]

He (S) also said, “A learned person is superior to a worshipper as the full moon is superior to all the stars. The scholars are heirs of the prophets and the prophets do not leave any inheritance in the shape of dirhams and dinars, but they do leave knowledge as their legacy. As such a person who acquires knowledge acquires his full share.” [Abu Dawud and Tirmizi] [2]

Sadly, today’s Muslims seek wealth more than they know how to even spend it. In spite of all the wealth that Allah (SWT) has bestowed on them, they have failed to create a single respectable institution of higher learning. Ali (RA) was once asked what was better: wealth or knowledge. He said, “Knowledge is superior to wealth for ten reasons:
(i) Knowledge is the legacy of the prophets. Wealth is the inheritance of the Pharaohs. Therefore, knowledge is better than wealth.
(ii) You are to guard your wealth but knowledge guards you. So knowledge is better.
(iii) A man of wealth has many enemies while a man of knowledge has many friends. Hence knowledge is better.
(iv) Knowledge is better because it increases with distribution, while wealth decreases by that act.
(v) Knowledge is better because a learned man is apt to be generous while a wealthy person is apt to be miserly.
(vi) Knowledge is better because it cannot be stolen while wealth can be stolen.
(vii) Knowledge is better because time cannot harm knowledge, but wealth rusts in course of time and wears away.
(viii) Knowledge is better because it is boundless while wealth is limited and you can keep account of it.
(ix) Knowledge is better because it illuminates the mind while wealth is apt to blacken it.
(x) Knowledge is better because knowledge induced the humanity in our Prophet to say to Allah, "We worship Thee as we are Your servant," while wealth engendered in Pharaoh and Nimrod the vanity which made them claim Godhead.” [3]

What wisdom! Yet, most Muslims these days are dispassionate about seeking knowledge. Why? Do they know what Imam Ibn Hazm (R) - the great Spanish Muslim theologian, jurist and poet - said? He said, “If knowledge had no other merit than to make the ignorant fear and respect you, and scholars love and honor you, this would be good enough reason to seek after it… If ignorance had no other fault than to make the ignorant man jealous of knowledgeable men and jubilant at seeing more people like himself, this by itself would be reason enough to oblige us to feel it… If knowledge and the action of devoting oneself to it had no purpose except to free the man who seeks it from the exhausting anxieties and many worries which afflict the mind, that alone would certainly be enough to drive us to seek knowledge.” [4]

I only wish that his remarks would wake Muslims up to seeking and mastering knowledge.

Muslims should also ponder over the statement made by Mu’adh ibn Jabal (RA): “Acquire knowledge for the pleasure of Allah, for learning engenders piety, reverence for one’s Lord and fear of wrongdoing. Seeking knowledge for Allah’s pleasure is an act of worship, studying it is a celebration of God’s glory (lit. Zikr), searching for it is a rewarding struggle (lit. Jihad), teaching it to someone who realizes its worth is a charity (lit. Sadaqa), and applying it in one’s home strengthens family unity and kinship. … Knowledge is a comforting friend in times of loneliness. It is the best companion to a traveler. It is the innermost friend who speaks to you in your privacy. Knowledge is your most effective sword against your foe, and finally, it is your most dignifying raiment in the company of your close comrades.” [Hilyat’ul Awliya Wa Tabaqat’ul Asfiya]

Similarly, Sharafuddin Maneri (R) said, “Knowledge is the fountainhead of all happiness, just as ignorance is the starting point of all wretchedness. Salvation comes from knowledge, destruction from ignorance.” [Maktubat-i Sadi]
The next series of questions Muslims must ask is – what kind of knowledge should they seek? Is it only science/ engineering/ medicine/ technology – in which they lag badly? Or, is it in the area of social sciences? What kinds of skills should they develop? Is it desirable to have a brilliant and yet a Godless psychopath behind a nuclear button? I fear not.

The Muslim community must ensure that their educational system allows for grooming of a conscious human being first before turning him/her into a scientific genius. Scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs must be dictated by Islamic ethics and morality.

As such, they must ensure that their children are raised properly and that they learn from role models of piety, honesty, self-sacrifice and generosity. [10]

2. Quality of leadership and shared responsibility:
The quality of leadership on the top matters. In the early days of Islam, Muslim rulers were not only the great patrons of learning they were great scholars themselves. They surrounded themselves with learned men: philosophers, legal experts, traditionalists, theologians, lexicographers, annalists, poets, mathematicians, scientists, engineers, architects and doctors. Scholars held high ranks in their courts.

In the post-colonial era, sadly, most governments in the Muslim nation-states have been despotic who did not practice the Qur’anic dictum about ‘shura bainahum,’ requiring consultation and/or representation from the people. Worse yet, these governments have often times been puppets of foreign powers. With the Arab Spring that started in Tunisia, things are, however, changing for the better. People have overcome their fear of the murderous regimes. It is only a question of time when Bashar al-Asad will also be toppled by the Syrian people.

Muslims must ensure that they have responsive governments that are honest, just and mindful of their obligations, and are held accountable for their deeds. They must ensure good governance, safety and prosperity of their people. They must see to it that their governments promote meritocracy and not sycophancy.

Like agriculture, education sector should be prioritized high in the state budget so that they can build world-class institutions of higher learning.

Many a time Muslim students can’t apply the skills/knowledge that they learned in schools. This is especially true in the field of science and engineering where scientists and engineers always seek environments conducive to their research, and this gives an enormous advantage to places where academic freedom is guaranteed. Because of such a flawed environment today in the Muslim world, the brightest minds naturally are draining out of their respective countries, only to settle (with very few exceptions) in more prosperous western countries, where they can apply their talents and skills appositely. Unless Muslim governments can stop this ‘brain-drain’ phenomenon they will never be able to catch up with more developed and prosperous nations. It is worth noting here that the post-World War II technological success and ensuing prosperity in the USA owes mostly to its brilliant immigrant scientists and engineers.

Let me again quote here from Carli Fiorina, who said, “Leaders like Suleiman [the magnificent] contributed to our notions of tolerance and civic leadership. And perhaps we can learn a lesson from his example: It was leadership based on meritocracy, not inheritance. It was leadership that harnessed the full capabilities of a very diverse population - that included Christianity, Islamic, and Jewish traditions. This kind of enlightened leadership - leadership that nurtured culture, sustainability, diversity and courage - led to 800 years of invention and prosperity.”

Will Muslim leaders take heed and amend their actions? If they can’t attract their expatriates to return, let alone outsiders, can they at least stop the brain-drain phenomenon by retaining the best? Are they committed to creating a society that attracts the good ones and filters out the bad ones?

While the Muslim governments surely have a foremost obligation towards patronizing academic institutions from primary to tertiary levels, their wealthy ones should not be oblivious of their own duties towards creating prestigious private institutions like the Stanford University. There, too, the quality of education must take precedence over profit motivation. In today’s America, outside UC Berkeley, all the top 10 schools are private universities. The Muslim world needs its Warren Buffets and Bill Gates to step forward to pay their dues to the very society that has enriched them.

3. Going beyond the expected:
As I hinted above, Muslims are far behind in every field of learning. While their counterparts have gone to the moon and have sent the Hubble Telescope to provide information about our universe, most Muslim governments in poor countries are finding it hard to reach to their villages. Simply going with the flow or doing just the bare minimum is not sufficient to close this widening gap, especially in the area of technology. If their counterparts are going at a speed of a bike, Muslims must try to go at a speed of a motor car; if they are going at a speed of a motor car, Muslims must try to go at a speed of an airplane to close this gap. Simply put, Muslim strategy ought to be - going beyond the normal call of duty, doing extra things. To elucidate this point, let me here close with a story from the Prophet’s time.

Talha bin 'Ubaidullah (RA) narrated that a man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islam. Allah's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers perfectly five times in a day and night (24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawafil (extra) prayers (you can)." Allah's Apostle further said to him: "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." The man asked, "Is there any more fasting?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to observe the Nawafil fasts (you can.)" Then Allah's Apostle further said to him, "You have to pay the Zakat (obligatory charity)." The man asked, "Is there any thing other than the Zakat for me to pay?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, unless you want to give alms of your own." And then that man retreated saying, "By Allah! I will neither do less nor more than this." Allah's Apostle said, "If what he said is true, then he will be successful (i.e. he will be granted Paradise)." [Bukhari]

Here in this hadith lies the formula for rejuvenating the Muslim nation.
Are they ready to take up on this arduous task to reclaim their lost heritage? [8]

[1]. See hadith collections by Imams Ibn Majah and Baihaqi.
[2]. Consult this author’s books – Islamic Wisdom and Wisdom of Mankind – for many such hadiths and sayings of learned men of Islam.
[3]. Hilyat’ul Awliya wa Tabaqatul Asfiya by Imam Abu Na’im al-Asfahani (R).
[4]. Imam Ibn Hajm, “Al-Akhlaq wa’l Siyar" – Morality and Behaviour, published in "In Pursuit of Virtue" by M. Abu Laylah, Ta-Ha Publishers 1990.
[5]. ibid.
[6] Stanwood Cobb, Islamic Contributions to Civilization (1963).
[7] Arnold J. Toynbee, Civilization on Trial, Oxford.
[8] See also this author’s article - Seeking Knowledge: Our National Imperative, Muslim World Almanac (2008).
[9] Dr. Murad W. Hofmann, Islamic Intellectualism, Media Monitors Network, Nov. 13, 2003.
[10] See this author’s upcoming book – Akhlaq: A Manual for Character Development, A.S. Noordeen, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2012) [in print]